One of the greatest and most influential scientists of all time, Sir Isaac Newton is a famous mathematician and physicist from England. Publishing the book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687, he set the basis for classical mechanics. Newton contributed to optics principles with dispersion, and development of differential and integral calculus, built law of motion and gravitation, which directed scientists and physicists’ views in the next 3 centuries. In addition, he created the first practical reflecting telescope, contributed to colour theory, studied empirical law of cooling, sound speed, power series, general binomial theory, etc. He had served the Royal Society as a president and worked as a member in the British Government. According to a survey about the most influential person in science history by the Royal Society in 2005, Newton was believed to have more influence than Albert Einstein.
Born in a farming family at Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, Newton was the son of Isaac Newton and Hannah Ayscough. His father died 3 month before his birth and when he was three, his mother left he for grandmother to remarry. Newton disliked farming so he was sent to King's School and then attended Cambridge University. When the university was forced to close in 1665, Newton came home and had important scientific discoveries but not published immediately. From August, 1684 to spring of 1688, he completed the book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which introduced his important definitions and laws, becoming one of the most important studies in the scientific revolution.
Newton remained single until his death.