Known as The Father of Science, this physicist not only invented the telescope and the thermometer, but helped to instigate the Scientific Revolution. His advocacy of the theory of heliocentricism, which postulated that the earth revolved around the sun and not the other way around, made him an enemy of the Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church arrested him under vehement suspicion of heresy for his defense of the heliocentric model, and he was forced to spend the remainder of his life under house arrest.
Stephen Hawking, in his work, On the Shoulders of Giants, celebrated Galileo for giving birth to modern science.
While training to become a doctor under his father's wishes, he became fascinated with mathematics, which led him to study the stars.
He had three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba: two daughters named Virginia and Livia, and one son named Vincenzo.